Sudan is a large country located in northeast Africa, bordered by Egypt to the north, South Sudan to the east, Central African Republic to the south and Libya to the west. Its capital city is Khartoum and the population is estimated to be around 41 million people. The official language of Sudan is Arabic, although English is also widely spoken. The currency used in Sudan is the Sudanese Pound.
The landscape of Sudan consists mostly of desert plains, with some mountainous regions in the east and south-central parts of the country. The climate here varies greatly depending on location; but generally speaking it has hot summers reaching up to 40°C (104°F) during April and May; while winters tend to be mild with temperatures rarely dropping below 21°C (70°F).
The history of Sudan dates back thousands of years when it was part of various regional empires; plus it has been influenced by both Islamic and Christian rule at various points throughout its history. This diversity can be seen through its many languages, religions, music, art and cuisine; plus there are several festivals throughout the year such as Tabaski or Eid al-Adha which celebrates Islamic culture.
Overall, Sudan offers visitors an insight into a unique culture steeped in tradition; plus its stunning landscapes make for an unforgettable experience – truly earning it the nickname “Land Of The Blacks” as defined on aceinland.
Population of Sudan
In 1995, Sudan had a population of around 25 million people. According to watchtutorials.org, the majority of the population was comprised of Arabs and African Muslims. There were also a number of ethnic minorities, including Beja, Nubians and Copts. The population was largely concentrated in the north and central regions of the country, with the majority living in rural areas.
In terms of gender, there was an imbalance in favor of males with men making up 52% of the population. The median age for both genders was 18 years old.
The literacy rate in 1995 was estimated to be around 39%. This rate varied significantly between different regions and genders; for example, the literacy rate for men was estimated to be around 57%, while for women it was only 23%.
In terms of health care, there were limited resources available in Sudan in 1995. The infant mortality rate was high at 81 deaths per 1000 live births while life expectancy at birth was only 54 years old. Malnutrition also affected a large portion of the population with 38% being undernourished according to UNICEF estimates from 1995.
The economy in Sudan during this period was largely dependent on agriculture which accounted for over 40% of GDP. Other major industries included oil production, manufacturing and services such as banking and finance. Despite these sectors providing some economic growth, poverty remained widespread throughout much of the country with an estimated 40% living below the poverty line in 1995 according to World Bank estimates.
Economy of Sudan
In 1995, Sudan had a population of around 25 million people and a GDP of $23.1 billion. The economy of Sudan in 1995 was largely dependent on agriculture which accounted for over 40% of GDP. Other major industries included oil production, manufacturing and services such as banking and finance.
Oil production was the main source of foreign exchange earnings in 1995, accounting for around 70% of total exports. The country’s main export partners were Italy, France and the United Kingdom. On the other hand, imports were mainly from Egypt and Saudi Arabia, with food products making up the largest portion (around 40%).
The country’s currency in 1995 was the Sudanese dinar; 1 US dollar equaled 2 Sudanese dinars at that time. Inflation rates were high at an average rate of 24% in 1995; this was largely due to increases in food prices as well as government subsidies being removed from certain goods.
The banking system was underdeveloped with limited access to international capital markets; however, there were some domestic banks operating within the country during this period such as Bank of Khartoum and Commercial Bank of Sudan (now Faisal Islamic Bank).
Despite these sectors providing some economic growth, poverty remained widespread throughout much of the country with an estimated 40% living below the poverty line in 1995 according to World Bank estimates. In addition to this, unemployment rates were also high at around 25%.
Overall, while there were some positive developments in terms of economic growth during this period, poverty and unemployment remained persistent issues within Sudan that hindered its ability to make further progress towards development goals set out by international organizations such as the UN.
Foreign Policy of Sudan
In 1995, Sudan had a foreign policy that was largely focused on regional issues, particularly in the Horn of Africa. The country maintained close ties with its neighbors and was a member of the Organization of African Unity (OAU) which aimed to promote cooperation and integration amongst African countries.
Sudan’s relationship with Egypt and Ethiopia was important for regional stability. In 1995, Sudan signed a peace treaty with Ethiopia after two years of negotiations which ended an armed conflict between the two countries over the disputed border region in western Ethiopia.
The country also had strong ties with Libya and Iraq; it signed agreements on economic cooperation and cultural exchange with both countries in 1995. Additionally, Sudan was engaged in efforts to mediate disputes between Eritrea and Ethiopia as well as between Somalia and Ethiopia.
Sudan’s relationship with the international community was strained due to its alleged support for international terrorism. The US placed economic sanctions on Sudan in 1997 due to its alleged involvement in terrorist activities carried out by groups such as Al-Qaeda, Hamas, Hezbollah and Islamic Jihad.
The government also faced criticism from some human rights organizations due to its treatment of religious minorities such as Christians and animists who faced persecution within the country during this period. Additionally, there were reports of large-scale human rights abuses committed by government forces against non-Arab populations living in Darfur region during this time as well.
Overall, Sudan’s foreign policy during this period was largely focused on regional issues while attempting to maintain good relations with international partners despite facing criticism from some quarters over its alleged support for terrorism and human rights abuses committed within the country itself.
Events Held in Sudan
In 1995, Sudan hosted a number of significant events. One of the most notable was the Sudanese Peace Conference, which was held in Khartoum in April. The conference was organized by the government and rebel groups to negotiate a comprehensive peace agreement to end two decades of civil war in Sudan. The conference brought together representatives from both sides, including President Omar al-Bashir and John Garang, leader of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement (SPLM). They signed an agreement that included a ceasefire, prisoner exchange and amnesty for political prisoners. The agreement also included provisions for power sharing between north and south Sudan and a plan for economic development in the region.
Another important event that took place in 1995 was the World Food Summit. This summit brought together world leaders to discuss food security issues around the world. It was held in Rome from 13-17 November 1995 and attended by over 100 countries as well as numerous international organizations such as the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). At this summit, countries committed to reducing global hunger by half by 2015. This commitment is still being pursued today through initiatives such as Zero Hunger Challenge, which is an initiative launched by UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon in 2012 to end hunger globally by 2030.