The most ancient monuments of painting are illuminated liturgical books of the century. XI, mostly from Germany and Bohemia. In the 12th and 13th centuries manuscripts were also adorned in Polish convents. The most interesting is the number of S Life. Hedwig, princess of Poland, by Nicolao Pruzia, decorated with drawings and miniatures (1353). In the century XV distinguished in this field the Krakow school which was influenced by Germans, Flemings and, later, also Italians. Under the influence of Italian painting, which, like the French one, reached Poland through Bohemia, it developed in the century. XIV mural painting. The Italian influence also lasted in the fifteenth century, while starting from the second half of the century. XV also the influence of German painting becomes sensitive. Also of interest are the paintings of wooden churches from the beginning of the 16th century (Dębno near Nowy Targ). Important from a cultural point of view is the expansion, in Poland, of Byzantine painting, due to personal predilections of the kings of the Lithuanian-Ruthenian dynasty. However, these paintings did not influence the development of Polish art which always preserved its Western character. The Byzantine painters left works in the chapel of the Lublin Castle (1415) and in the Armenian Cathedral of Lviv, where are the remains of Byzantine paintings of the century. XV, similar to the paintings of the Caucasus. Panel painting, in which German and Bohemian influences dominate, spread in the 14th and 15th centuries, with triptychs, polyptychs and funeral paintings.
In the first half of the century. XVI the miniature developed under the influence of Italian and Flemish art. Stanislaus of Krakow and other illuminators left magnificent works, among which the most important are the miniatures of the codex of Baldassare Behem Krakow, University Library), those of the prayer books of King Sigismund I (British Museum) and of the Szydłowecki (Milan, Ambrosiana). Hans Dürer brother of Alberto Dürer and Dionisio Stuba, a painter from Krakow, decorated the rooms of the royal palace.
Panel painting was continually influenced by German art. The German Hans Sues von Kulmbach made large triptychs for the city’s churches in Krakow. Lenz von Kitzingen also left works in Poland. And as a result of the German painters worked numerous Polish artists. In the second half of the century. XVI German and Flemish painters were employed in portraits of royal families and magnates. Among them, at the end of the century. XVI and in the century. XVII, the German Martino Koeber distinguished himself.
In the 17th century there were even more foreign painters: German, Flemish and Italian. From Italy came Tomaso Dollabella da Belluno (about 1570-1650), a descendant of the great Venetian painters of the century. XVI. Among the Polish painters the best known are Míchele Bożymowski, Martino Proszowski, Martino Polacco who worked in Tyrol and Alto Adige, where he died in Bressannne (1639). Under the influence of Flemish painting, Cristoforo Trekkowski and Giovanni Tretko, called Tricius, worked. The eclectic Francesco Lekszycki (1602-1668), painted, under the influence of Caravaggio, many pictures for Polish churches.
At the end of the century. XVII the Italian Del Bene, a pupil of Pietro da Cortona, worked in Vilna and Pożajście in the church of the Camaldolese. For Giovanni Sobieski Martino Altomonte (1657-1745) made portraits and historical paintings. Under the Italian influence he painted Eleutero Siemiginowski (born around 1657), a pupil of the school of Carlo Maratta, also a painter of the same king. Flemish painting instead attracted the Lubieniecki brothers: Theodore (1653-1729), painter of historical scenes and landscapes, and Cristoforo (1659-1729) who stayed in Amsterdam and also painted historical scenes and portraits.
In the century XVIII painters from different nations worked in Poland, but all dependent on French painting. The French Lodovico de Silvèstre, the Scotsman Silvestre de Mirys, the Swede Per Krafft, the Italians Marcello Bacciarelli (1738-1818), who decorated the palaces of King Stanislaus Augustus and made numerous portraits, Giovanni Battista Lampi and Giuseppe Grassi stood out. Bernardo Bellotto, il Canaletto, also worked at the king’s court, affirming Venetian art: he painted views of Warsaw. The German Joseph Pitschmann worked in Poland from 1788 until his death (1834) leaving many portraits there.
Meanwhile the ranks of Polish painters grew. Very skilled artists such as Simone Czechowicz (1689-1775), a pupil of the school of Carlo Maratta, and Taddeo Konicz (c. 1731-1793) are linked to Italian painting; in the French style Vincenzo de Lesseur (1745-1813) and Alessandro Kucharski (1741-1819) both very fine illuminators, Casimiro Wojniakowski (17721812), Martino Topolski (1766-1812), Giuseppe Peszka (1767-1831). Represents classicism in the century. XVIII and at the beginning of the century. XIX Francesco Smuglewicz (1745-1815).
A special place in the history of art in Poland occupied the Frenchman Peter Norblin (1745-1830). He not only painted pictures in the manner of Watteau, but he also knew how to penetrate the spirit of the Polish country, whose life he represented with realism and mastery.
According to justinshoes, the painting that in the century XVIII had followed the development of Western Europe, changes character since the beginning of the century. XIX. The political tragedy of the nation and the contemporary currents of the West induced Polish art to deal with the nation’s past and its traditions. Together with literature and music, painting becomes national in the true sense of the word and fulfills a political and educational mission. The strongest accent now rests on the theme, while, adhering to folklore, the form often varies. However, this change does not completely exclude the influence of Western art, especially that of French and German. Michele Stachowicz (1768-1855) is the first painter who left us many paintings depicting the life of the village. Following in his footsteps, Alessandro Orłowski, his pupil (1777-1832), he drew and painted scenes and motifs from the life of Poland and Russia with sincere naturalism. Pietro Michałowski (1801-1855) was not immune from French influences, who often comes close to Spanish art due to his temperament and color. The creator of the national-historical painting is Jan Matejko (v.; 1839-1893). His immense canvases illustrating the most important facts of Polish history influenced the following generation. From the point of view of the general development of painting, Matejko’s art may seem an anachronism. However, it is necessary to take into account its great richness and expressive power (especially in the very numerous features). From the point of view of the general development of painting, Matejko’s art may seem an anachronism. However, it is necessary to take into account its great richness and expressive power (especially in the very numerous features). From the point of view of the general development of painting, Matejko’s art may seem an anachronism. However, it is necessary to take into account its great richness and expressive power (especially in the very numerous features).
Very different from him is his contemporary Arturo Grottger (1837-1867) who gave his art the tragic and romantic expression of the last Polish uprising. The great painter of horses and popular life is Giulio Kossak (1829-1899). Andrea Grabowski, Enrico Rodakowski and Guglielmo Leopolski are the best portrait painters. From the large number of other painters we note: Maurizio Gottlieb, Alessandro Kotsis who portrayed popular life with a sense of reality and sincere sentiment; Enrico Siemiradzki, who revived the charm of the ancient world on his canvases; Stanislao Chlebowski, a painter from the Muslim East. The students of the Munich academy form a separate group: Alfredo Wierusz Kowalski, Giuseppe Brandt, Giuseppe Chelmoński excel among them.
Seeking national themes, Polish Impressionism, which ushers in a new era in the development of Polish art, moves away from French Impressionism. The most important representatives of the movement are: Massimiliano and Alessandro Gierymski, Ladislao Podkowiński, Jan Stanislawski, Witold Pruszkowski, J. Pankiewicz, J. Fałat and Leon Wyczółkowski. Next to these stands the group of Matejko’s pupils: Giuseppe Mehoffer, Vladimiro Tetmajer and Stanislao Wyspiański who precedes the following generation: Ladislao Jarocki, Casimiro Sichulski, Vitoldo Wojkiewicz, Federico Pautsch. A very individual artist, Giacinto (Jacek) Malczewski, intensely relived fantastic motifs related to the life and tragedy of the nation.
Postwar Polish painting partly continues the traditions of the past; but the change in the political situation has produced, even in this field, a change in ideology; and the cult of form returns again. Among the numerous artists stand out: Taddeo Pruszkowski, Venceslao Borowski, Ludomir Śleńdziński, Zofja Stryjeńska, Raffaele Malczewski, Eugenio Źak, Taddeo Makowski, Giacinto Mierzejewski and many others.
Norblin also gave a great impetus to the development of the engraving. He himself was a distinguished engraver constantly caught by the fascination of Rembrandt, and his pupils Płoński and Orlowski followed him. Engravings in the various techniques are also due to JF Piwarski (1795-1859), Antonio Oleszczyński (1794-1879), Ladislao Oleszczyński (1808-1866), F. Jasiński (1862-1901), J. Rubczak. Among the most modern we remember the painter J. Pankiewicz, author of very fine engravings, the painter Leon Wyczołkówski, W. Skoczylas, E. Bartłomiejczyk, S. Chrostowski. In contact with popular art, wood engraving has been able to reach a very high level.