Linz, capital of the Austrian state of Upper Austria, on the Danube, 266 m above sea level, (2019) 205 700 residents.
According to ehealthfacts, Linz extends over 96 km 2 on both sides of the Danube at its breakthrough (Linzer Pforte) through the Bohemian Massif and in the south on the right bank of the Danube to the mouth of the Traun and beyond. The city with its own statute is the administrative seat of the Linz-Land and Urfahr-Umgebung districts, the seat of the Higher Regional Court for Upper Austria and Salzburg, the regional court and numerous other federal authorities and the seat of a Catholic bishop.
Various educational institutions are concentrated in Linz: Johannes Kepler University, campus of the Upper Austria University of Applied Sciences, Catholic-Theological Private University, University for artistic and industrial design, University of Education, Anton Bruckner Private University for Music, Drama and Dance, State Gymnastics and Sports school, several higher technical federal schools (for applied arts, agriculture and housekeeping, fashion and clothing technology), libraries and research institutes. Linz has developed into an important cultural center, with a state theater, music theater (opened in 2013) and numerous museums (Upper Austrian State Museum, Nordico City Museum, Lentos Art Museum, Ars Electronica Center, etc.). The Bruckner Festival and the Ars Electronica (Festival for Media Art).
In addition to the service sector, the economy is primarily determined by the steel industry (voestalpine AG), industrial plant and mechanical engineering, and the chemical industry (manufacture of fertilizers and pesticides, pharmaceuticals and plastics), as well as textile, electrical and electronic engineering Food and luxury food industry (including brewery) important. As a trade, exhibition and congress center, Linz is also a road (motorway) and railway junction and has a Danube port; the airport is west of the city in Linz-Hörsching.
The center of the old town, which is mainly characterized by baroque buildings, is the large main square (laid out in the 13th century) in the north-south axis with the town hall (first mentioned in 1509, expanded in 1513/14, rebuilt in 1658/59) and numerous houses with Renaissance and Baroque facades; in the middle the Trinity Column (1723). To the east of this is the Jesuit Church of St. Ignatius (old cathedral, built 1669–78) with a mighty double tower facade and the parish church of the Assumption (13th century, rebuilt 1649–56, expanded 1687–94) with frescoes in the choir by B. Altomonte (around 1772). To the west of the main square is the country house (1564–71) with arbor and planetary fountain (1582), rebuilt after the fire in 1800 with classicist fronts, next to it is the former Minorite church (country house church, renovated 1751–58) with Rococo furnishings. New building under Emperor Rudolf II, 1604–14; partly destroyed by fire in 1800) today houses the historical part of the State Museum. The small Martinskirche west of the castle dates from the 8th century (attested in 799, Gothic reconstruction).
Outside the narrowest area of the old town are: the neo-Gothic New Cathedral (1862–1924) with a 135 m high tower, a work of the Wilhelminian era in Austria; Church of the Brothers of Mercy (1713–32, consecrated 1743); Carmelite Church (1674 and 1690–1726); former Teutonic Order Church (seminary church, 1718–25 based on a design by J. L. von Hildebrandt); Elisabethinenkirche (1762–68) in the transition from baroque to classicism; Bischofshof (1721–26), baroque four-wing complex by J. Prandtauer; Francisco Carolinum (1884–1895, seat of the bishop to this day).
Technical monuments include the former woolen factory (1722–26), the Danube bridge (1870–72), an iron lattice structure, and the tobacco factory built in 1929–33 according to plans by P. Behrens (bought by the city of Linz in 2010 and to promote the creative economy, media art and digitization used). Examples of modern architecture are: Brucknerhaus concert hall (1969–74) by K. and H. Sirén, ORF-Studio (1968–73) by G. Peichl, Pedagogical Academy of the Diocese of Linz (1968–75) by F. Riepl and O. Sackmauer, Neues Rathaus (1979–85) by R. Falkner and A. Fürtler, Design Center (1991–93) by T. Herzog, Ars Electronica Center (1995), Lentos Kunstmuseum (2000–03) by Weber + Hofer, Hauptbahnhof (2000–04) by W. Holzbauer and the Musiktheater Linz (2008–13) by T. Pawson. To the northwest, R. Rainer built the garden city of Puchenau I (1969) and Puchenau II (1978). – The pilgrimage church of the Seven Sorrows of Mary (1738–74) is located on the Pöstlingberg.
In the area of Linz there has been evidence of continuous settlement since the Neolithic. Celtic ramparts on the Freinberg and the Gründberg. In the Celtic-Roman Lentia, the Romans built a fort in the 1st century AD, around which a civil settlement was built (including a late antique Mithras shrine).
The church of Saint Martin “in Linze” is documented in 799. 903/905 Linz is named as a market. In the 13th century it gradually developed into a town under the Babenbergs, who acquired it in 1205/06 (mentioned in 1236 as “civitas”); Economic rights are mentioned for the first time in 1228. The economic basis of the city was the Danube toll, the (wooden) Danube bridge built in 1497 and the markets that were important until 1630. In 1490 Linz was given the right to freely elect mayors and judges.
The city suffered great damage from numerous fire disasters. With the settlement of the Jesuits (1600) and the Capuchins (1606) the Counter Reformation was initiated in Linz. Besieged in 1626 in the Peasants’ War, the town was temporarily conquered and occupied by the Bavarians and the French in 1741/42; in the coalition wars there were renewed French occupations (1800/01, 1805, 1809/10). In 1783/85 Linz became a bishopric and in 1831–35 it was expanded into a fortress.
In 1873 Lustenau and Waldegg, in 1915 Sankt Peter, in 1919 Urfahr (since 1882 town) as well as Pöstlingberg and in 1923 Kleinmünchen were incorporated. In 1934 the February fighting began in Linz. During the Second World War, Linz was badly damaged in bombing raids. 1945-55 the city was divided into two parts (American and Soviet zone).
In 2009 Linz was next to Vilnius (Lithuania) European Capital of Culture; Since 2014 the city has been a member of the UNESCO network “Creative Cities” (for media art).