According to HOMOSOCIETY, Kazakhstan, officially known as the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a Central Asian country located in Eurasia. It has a population of over 18 million people and its official language is Kazakh. The majority of Kazakhstan’s citizens are Muslim and practice either Sunni or Shia Islam. Kazakhstan has a rich cultural heritage, with art and literature playing an integral role in its culture. It is also known for its hospitality and welcoming nature towards visitors from all over the world.
The economy of Kazakhstan is mainly based on agriculture; with oil exports contributing significantly to GDP growth. Major export partners include Russia, China and United States; while import partners include China, Russia and Germany.
According to aceinland, nicknamed ‘the Land of the Great Steppe’ due to its vast steppes landscape; Kazakhstan offers visitors an array of activities ranging from sightseeing to exploring ancient monuments or simply relaxing on one of its many stunning beaches or villages dotted along coastline or inland areas. With its varied cultural heritage combined with vibrant cities offering plenty of entertainment options for all ages; Kazakhstan truly offers something for everyone!
Population of Kazakhstan
In 1995, Kazakhstan had a population of approximately 16 million people. According to watchtutorials.org, the majority of the population was Kazakh, with other ethnicities such as Russians, Ukrainians, Uzbeks and Tatars making up the remaining population. Approximately 69% of the total population was Kazakh while Russians made up 23%, Ukrainians 2%, Uzbeks 1% and Tatars 1%. The remaining 4% was composed of other ethnicities. In terms of religious beliefs, Kazakhstan was predominantly Muslim with an estimated 70% following the faith. Christianity made up 26%, with Russian Orthodox being the primary denomination followed by Roman Catholics and Protestants. The remaining 4% were either atheists or belonged to other religions. In terms of language, Kazakh was spoken by 68% of the population while Russian was spoken by 27%. Other languages spoken included Ukrainian (2%), Uzbek (1%) and Tatar (1%).
At that time in 1995, Kazakhstan had an average life expectancy at birth of 64 years for males and 71 years for females. Infant mortality rate stood at 47 per 1000 live births in 1995 while birth rate stood at 18 per 1000 people in 1995. Literacy rate among adults aged 15 years old or over stood at 98%.
Economy of Kazakhstan
In 1995, the economy of Kazakhstan was still in transition after the collapse of the Soviet Union. The country had a command economy during Soviet times, but it was transitioning to a market-based economy. GDP per capita in 1995 was estimated to be around $3,300. Agriculture accounted for approximately 20% of GDP while Industry accounted for 44% and services accounted for 36%. Kazakhstan’s main industries included oil and gas production, mining and minerals processing, ferrous metallurgy, chemicals, food processing and machine building. The country also had significant deposits of uranium and copper which were exploited by foreign investors.
At that time in 1995, Kazakhstan’s primary exports were petroleum products (40%), ferrous metals (19%), machinery (14%) and chemicals (7%). Its major trade partners included Russia (38%), Ukraine (13%), Uzbekistan (9%) and China (7%). In terms of imports, Kazakhstan imported mostly machinery and equipment (44%), chemicals (10%) and foodstuffs (9%). Its major import partners included Russia (45%), Germany (11%) and China (8%).
The currency used in Kazakhstan at that time was the Kazakhstani tenge which replaced the Russian ruble as the official currency in 1993. The exchange rate between the US dollar and the tenge was approximately 105 tenge per US dollar in 1995.
Kazakhstan had a relatively low unemployment rate of 4.3% in 1995 compared to other countries in transition. Inflation rate was also relatively low at 4.4%. The country’s banking sector was relatively undeveloped and most banking activities were conducted through branches of Russian banks.
In conclusion, the economy of Kazakhstan in 1995 was still in transition from a command to a market-based economy. GDP per capita was estimated to be around $3,300 while agriculture accounted for 20%, industry 44% and services 36%. Primary exports included petroleum products, ferrous metals, machinery and chemicals while major import partners included Russia, Germany and China. The currency used at that time was the Kazakhstani tenge with an exchange rate of 105 tenge per US dollar. Unemployment rate stood at 4.3% while inflation rate was 4.4%.
Foreign Policy of Kazakhstan
In 1995, Kazakhstan’s foreign policy was focused on maintaining friendly relations with its neighbors while at the same time developing its own independent identity. The country sought to strengthen and expand its ties with countries of the former Soviet Union, particularly Russia, and also to develop relations with countries in Europe, Asia and beyond.
Kazakhstan was a founding member of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) in 1991 and it actively participated in various CIS activities such as meetings of the heads of state, economic cooperation agreements and joint security initiatives. Kazakhstan also participated in international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) and Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD).
Kazakhstan was actively involved in negotiations over the Caspian Sea’s legal status. Along with other littoral states – Azerbaijan, Iran, Russia and Turkmenistan – Kazakhstan negotiated a convention that would define their rights to use resources within this shared body of water.
Kazakhstan also developed close ties with China. In 1994, Kazakh President Nursultan Nazarbayev visited Beijing to sign a Friendship Treaty between the two countries which included provisions on economic cooperation as well as mutual respect for each other’s territorial integrity. This treaty helped strengthen economic ties between Kazakhstan and China which later led to increased Chinese investment into Kazakhstan’s oil industry.
In 1995, Kazakhstan also developed close ties with Turkey which included various agreements on political cooperation as well as economic cooperation such as an agreement on trade liberalization between Turkey and Central Asian countries signed in May 1995.
Kazakhstan sought to improve its relations with Western countries by participating in international organizations such as OSCE which it joined in 1992. The country also improved bilateral relations with various Western nations including Germany, France, UK and US through high-level visits by Kazakh officials to these countries during 1995.
Overall, Kazakhstan’s foreign policy in 1995 was focused on strengthening ties with former Soviet republics while at the same time developing closer relationships with other states around the world. The country sought to participate actively in international organizations such as UN, OSCE and OECD while also striving to improve bilateral relations with major powers like China or Turkey or Western European nations like Germany or France or US or UK.
Events Held in Kazakhstan
Kazakhstan continued to host a variety of events in 1995, showcasing the country’s commitment to international cooperation and development. In May of that year, Kazakhstan hosted the “Dialogue of Civilizations” forum in Almaty, which brought together leaders from around the world to discuss topics related to global peace and security. This event was attended by representatives from more than 30 countries, including the United States, Russia, China, and Germany. The forum was a success and laid the groundwork for further dialogue between participants.
In October 1995, Kazakhstan also hosted the “First Conference on Central Asian Cooperation” in Almaty. This event sought to promote regional integration among Central Asian states. Representatives from all five Central Asian countries – Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan – took part in this conference. During this event, participants discussed topics such as economic development and cross-border trade opportunities as well as social issues such as education and healthcare. The conference was a great success and led to increased cooperation between these countries in the years that followed.
In November 1995, Kazakhstan hosted another important event – “The International Conference on Environmental Protection” – which brought together representatives from more than 40 countries to discuss environmental issues affecting Central Asia. This conference focused on topics such as air pollution control measures, water conservation efforts and sustainable development projects in the region. The conference was a great success with many participants pledging their support for further initiatives aimed at preserving Central Asia’s fragile environment.
Finally, during December 1995 Kazakhstan also held its first ever Presidential election which saw Nursultan Nazarbayev elected for his second term as President of Kazakhstan with an overwhelming majority of votes cast in his favor. This election marked a major milestone for democracy in Kazakhstan as it demonstrated that free and fair elections could be held even under authoritarian rule.
Overall, 1995 was an important year for Kazakhstan both domestically and internationally with many significant events taking place throughout the year that helped shape its future trajectory both politically and economically.