Innsbruck, Austria Cityscape
Innsbruck, capital of the Austrian state of Tyrol, at the confluence of the Sill in the Inn, with (2019) 132 100 residents.
According to ethnicityology, Innsbruck is the trade, transport and cultural center of Tyrol with two universities, theaters and museums; also an important congress and trade fair city. Innsbruck is one of the most popular city travel destinations in Austria and is a stronghold of winter sports.
The city has important churches, including the court church (1553–63) with the tomb of Emperor Maximilian I and the parish church of St. Jakob (1717–24). Also worth mentioning are the Hofburg (built mainly in the 18th century) and the country house of the Tyrolean estates (1725–28) as well as the numerous beautiful town houses. The Golden Roof (end of the 15th century), the magnificent bay of the Neuhof, is Innsbruck’s landmark.
Innsbruck was founded around 1180 and received city rights in 1239. In 1964 and 1976 it was the venue for the Winter Olympics.
The old town has retained its historical image with arbors and bay houses. Here you will find, among other things: the “Ottoburg”, a residential tower built in 1494/95, the Neuhof with the “Golden Roof” (around 1494/96), a bay window covered with fire-gilded copper shingles (originally the courtyard’s spectator box at parties on the town square) Deutschordenshaus (1533), the Trautsonhaus (1541), the Helblinghaus (in the core 15th / 16th century) with early Rococo facade (around 1732) and the Old Town Hall (redesigned in 1358, 1543 and 1691) with city tower (around 1442–50).
To the northeast there are: St. Jakob Cathedral (1717–24 on Romanesque and Gothic predecessor buildings), the most important baroque church in North Tyrol, with stucco and ceiling frescoes by E. Q. and C. D. Asam (1722/23); Hofburg (around 1460, rebuilt and rebuilt in rococo style from 1754–70), under the state rooms above all the »giant hall« with ceiling fresco by F. A. Maulbertsch; in the court church (1553–63) the tomb for Emperor Maximilian I in Renaissance style (cenotaph with figure of the kneeling emperor and relief of his deeds, 28 – of 40 planned – larger than life bronze statues of his ancestors, 23 statuettes and 20 busts of holy and Roman emperors).
To the east are the Old University (former Jesuit college, 16th / 17th century) and the Jesuit church (1627–40) with the princely crypt, to the south the baroque hospital church (1701–05) and the country house (1725–28), the most monumental baroque palace in Innsbruck. The baroque church of Sankt Johann-Nepomuk (1729–35) with a richly structured exterior and ceiling fresco by J. Schöpf is free-standing on the Innrain, closing off the old market square. Beyond the Inn is the Mariahilf parish church, a baroque central building (1647–49).
Several noble residences have been preserved, including Palais Fugger (Taxis), built in 1679–90 as the earliest Innsbruck palace with an Italian-style floor plan, with ceiling paintings by M. Knoller (1785/86), Palais Sarntheim (1671–86), Palais Tannenberg-Enzenberg (around 1690 to around 1744), Palais Pfeiffersberg (between 1712 and 1723, now part of the Jesuit College) and Palais Lodron (1744). Wilhelminian style buildings from the late 19th century are z. B. in Saggen the monastery of the Sisters of Mercy (1881-83), buildings in the local style z. B. the Konvikt Canisianum (1910/11), also in Saggen. The brewhouse (1926–31, by Louis Welzenbacher) of the former Adambräu, a building of classical modernism, was renovated in 1999–2004 (location of “aut. Architektur und tirol” and the archives for architecture).
The Bergisel ski jump (1925, expanded in 1964) and the Olympic villages (1964 and 1976) were built using a multi-storey, open construction method. In 2001–02 the ski jumping hill was redesigned according to plans by Zaha Mohammad Hadid . Josef Lackner built the Neu-Arzl parish church in 1960 and the grammar school, monastery and boarding school of the Ursulines from 1971–80. The regional studio Tyrol of the ORF created G. Peichl in 1972. The district center Hötting-West (1988), the Peerhofsiedlung (1989), the project “Wohnen am Viadukt” (1989) and the new construction of the main train station (2001–03, by Florian Riegler and Roger Riewe) are of urban significance.
The Premonstratensian monastery (since 1138) with the collegiate church of St. Laurentius (1651–67, high baroque facade 1716) and the parish church of the Conception of Mary (1751–55, rococo style) are located in Wilten. Ambras Castle is in thesuburb of Amras.