According to ESTATELEARNING, Indonesia is a Southeast Asian nation comprised of over 17,500 islands, making it the largest archipelago in the world. Located between the Indian and Pacific Oceans, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world with a population of over 260 million people. The official language spoken in Indonesia is Indonesian; however English is also widely spoken throughout the country.
The culture in Indonesia is incredibly diverse due to its vast population; with several religions, languages and customs all present throughout the country. Indonesian culture has been greatly influenced by its long history; with Hinduism being one of the oldest religions still practiced today. Music plays an important role in Indonesian culture; with traditional styles such as gamelan still popular today. There are also several festivals throughout the year celebrating various aspects of life such as Hari Raya or Chinese New Year.
The economy in Indonesia is largely based on agriculture, manufacturing and services; with exports including textiles, oil & gas and electronics contributing significantly to GDP growth. Major export partners include China, USA and Japan; while its main import partners include China, Japan and Singapore.
According to aceinland, nicknamed ‘the land of thousands islands’ due to its vast archipelago that stretches from Sumatra to Papua New Guinea; Indonesia offers visitors an array of activities ranging from sightseeing to exploring ancient temples or simply relaxing on one of its many stunning beaches or villages dotted along coastline or inland areas. With its stunning landscapes combined with vibrant cities offering plenty of entertainment options for all ages; Indonesia truly offers something for everyone!
Population of Indonesia
Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world with a population of over 200 million people in 1995. It is a diverse nation composed of over 300 ethnic groups, including Javanese, Sundanese, Madurese and Minangkabau. The majority religion is Islam, followed by Protestantism, Hinduism and Buddhism.
According to allcitypopulation.com, the population of Indonesia in 1995 was largely rural with about 75% living in rural areas. Most of these people were engaged in subsistence farming or fishing for their livelihoods. Despite this, there was a small but growing urban population that was concentrated around major cities such as Jakarta, Bandung and Surabaya.
In terms of gender ratio, women accounted for around 50% of the population in 1995 with men making up the other half. However, this ratio varied across different regions and ethnicities with some areas having higher concentrations of men than women while others had higher concentrations of women than men.
The median age in Indonesia during this period was 20 years old with around 33% aged 0-14 years old and 6% aged 65 years old or above. This indicates that Indonesia had a relatively young population at this time which contributed to its high fertility rate (around 4 children per woman).
In terms of literacy levels, the overall literacy rate stood at 68%, with males more likely to be literate than females (76% vs 61%). This disparity can be attributed to cultural norms which discouraged female education during this period as well as limited access to educational resources for girls living in rural areas.
Overall, Indonesia’s population has grown significantly since 1995 due to both natural increase and migration from other countries such as China and India. As such, it is expected that by 2020 the country will have an estimated 250 million inhabitants making it one of the most populous nations on earth.
Economy of Indonesia
In 1995, Indonesia was classified as a lower-middle-income country with a GDP per capita of $1,764. The economy was heavily reliant on the agricultural sector which accounted for around 30% of GDP and employed around 60% of the workforce. The main agricultural products at this time were rice, cassava, maize, soybeans and palm oil.
The industrial sector also played an important role in the Indonesian economy with manufacturing accounting for around 15% of GDP. This sector was mainly composed of small-scale enterprises producing textiles, chemicals and food products.
The services sector was also important and contributed around 40% to total GDP. This sector included financial services, telecommunications, transport and retail trade.
In terms of foreign trade, Indonesia relied heavily on imports for its energy needs as well as for manufactured goods such as machinery and equipment. Its main export markets at this time were Japan, Singapore and the United States while its main import partners were China, Japan and South Korea.
In terms of infrastructure development in 1995, Indonesia had made some progress towards modernizing its roads but still had a long way to go before becoming a truly developed nation. In addition to this, there were limited investments in the health care system which resulted in high levels of infant mortality (around 43 deaths per 1000 live births).
Overall, Indonesia’s economy in 1995 was largely dependent on agriculture with limited investments in industry or services sectors which resulted in low economic growth rates (around 4%). Despite this slow growth rate however, it is expected that by 2020 the country will have one of the strongest economies in Southeast Asia due to increased investment from foreign countries as well as improved infrastructure development throughout the region.
Foreign Policy of Indonesia
In 1995, Indonesia was in the midst of transitioning from an authoritarian to a more democratic form of government. As a result, its foreign policy was focused on re-establishing diplomatic ties with countries that had been estranged during the Suharto regime. This included countries such as Australia, United Kingdom and the United States.
Indonesia also sought to strengthen its relationships with other ASEAN countries in order to promote regional stability and economic development. This included signing the ASEAN Free Trade Agreement (AFTA) which was designed to reduce tariffs and promote free trade between member states.
In addition, Indonesia was actively seeking to improve relations with its neighbours such as East Timor and Malaysia by signing border agreements and engaging in joint military exercises. This helped to ensure that both countries maintained peaceful relations in the region.
On the international stage, Indonesia was an active member of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) which aimed to promote peace and security throughout the world by advocating for nuclear disarmament, human rights and economic development. Additionally, Indonesia was also a member of various international organisations such as the United Nations (UN), World Bank (WB) and International Monetary Fund (IMF).
Overall, Indonesia’s foreign policy in 1995 focused on strengthening ties with other ASEAN countries while also re-establishing diplomatic relations with estranged nations and promoting peace on a global scale through its involvement in various international organisations.
Events Held in Indonesia
In 1995, Indonesia hosted a variety of events that showcased the country’s culture and history. The first event was the Jakarta Biennale, an international art exhibition that featured works from local and international artists. It was held at the National Gallery of Indonesia in Jakarta and attracted thousands of visitors.
In May, Indonesia held its first-ever National Culture Festival which celebrated the diversity of cultures within the country. The festival was held in various cities across Indonesia and featured traditional music, dance performances, art exhibitions and other activities related to Indonesian culture.
Also in May, the Indonesian government organised a series of conferences to discuss issues such as human rights, democracy and economic development. These conferences were attended by representatives from various countries around the world as well as experts from various fields.
In June, Indonesia hosted its first-ever International Film Festival which featured films from around the world. The festival brought together filmmakers from different countries to discuss their work and exchange ideas on filmmaking techniques.
In August, Indonesia celebrated its 50th anniversary of independence with a series of celebrations across the country. These included parades featuring traditional dances and musical performances as well as fireworks displays in major cities such as Jakarta and Surabaya.
Finally, in November, Indonesia hosted its first-ever International Conference on Sustainable Development which focused on finding solutions to global environmental problems such as climate change and deforestation. This conference was attended by representatives from governments around the world as well as members of non-governmental organisations (NGOs).
Overall, 1995 was an important year for Indonesia with a wide range of cultural and political events taking place throughout the year that showcased both Indonesian culture and foreign relations with other countries around the world.