According to EHISTORYLIB, India is the world’s largest democracy, with a population of over 1.3 billion people. Located in South Asia, India is bordered by the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal to the west and south respectively; as well as Pakistan and Nepal to the north-west and China, Bhutan and Bangladesh to the north-east. The official language spoken in India is Hindi; however English is also widely spoken throughout the country.
The culture in India is incredibly diverse due to its vast population; with several religions, languages and customs all present throughout the country. Indian culture has been greatly influenced by its long history; with Hinduism being one of the oldest religions still practiced today. Music plays an important role in Indian culture; with traditional styles such as classical music still popular today. There are also several festivals throughout the year celebrating various aspects of life such as Diwali or Holi.
The economy in India is largely based on agriculture, manufacturing and services; with exports including textiles, gems & jewelry, engineering goods and chemicals contributing significantly to GDP growth. Major export partners include China, USA and UAE; while its main import partners include China, USA and Saudi Arabia.
According to aceinland, nicknamed ‘the land of diversity’ due to its combination of landscapes ranging from deserts to mountains that dot its landscape; India offers visitors an array of activities ranging from sightseeing to exploring ancient cities or simply relaxing on one of its many stunning beaches or villages dotted along the coastline or inland areas. With its stunning landscapes combined with vibrant cities offering plenty of entertainment options for all ages; India truly offers something for everyone!
Population of India
As of 1995, India had a population of 846.3 million people, making it the second most populous country in the world after China. The population was spread across 28 states and seven union territories, with the majority of people living in rural areas. India’s population growth rate was estimated to be 2.0% per year at that time, down from 2.2% in 1990 and 3.0% in 1980.
Demographically, India’s population was overwhelmingly young in 1995 with over 60% of citizens under the age of 30 and only 5% above 65 years old. The gender ratio was highly skewed towards men with a ratio of 933 women for every 1000 men; this gap has since narrowed slightly to 940 women for every 1000 men as of 2020.
According to watchtutorials.org, India’s literacy rate was 52%, with a large disparity between males (66%) and females (37%). In terms of religion, 79% identified as Hindu, 14% Muslim and 2% Christian while the remaining 5% practiced other religions or had no religious affiliation.
In terms of socio-economic status, almost half (47%) of India’s population lived below the poverty line in 1995 while another 40% were considered middle class and 13 % were considered upper class or wealthy individuals. This disparity has since decreased significantly to 21 % living below the poverty line as of 2020 due to economic growth and improved access to education and healthcare services throughout the country over the past two decades.
In terms of language diversity, Hindi is spoken by around 41 % of Indians followed by Bengali (8%), Telugu (7%), Marathi (7%), Tamil (6%), Urdu (5%) and Gujarati (4%). Around 22 other languages are also spoken including Punjabi, Malayalam, Odia and Kannada as well as many tribal languages spoken by indigenous populations across India’s various states.
Overall, India’s population in 1995 was largely young with a high proportion living below the poverty line but also showing signs that an economic boom was on its way due to improved access to education services throughout much of the country at that time.
Economy of India
In 1995, India was a developing economy with a mixed system of public and private enterprise. The gross domestic product (GDP) was estimated at $324 billion, making India the 10th largest economy in the world. The Indian economy was largely agrarian with over 60% of the population engaged in farming and related activities. Agriculture accounted for around 24% of GDP and employed over half of the working population. Industry contributed around 25% to GDP, with manufacturing and services making up the majority of this contribution.
The Indian economy was largely closed to foreign trade in 1995, with tariff barriers and import restrictions limiting imports. Exports were also heavily restricted by laws that required foreign companies to obtain licenses before they could export goods from India. Despite these restrictions, India’s exports still amounted to around $25 billion in 1995 which made up 8% of GDP that year.
The banking sector was highly regulated by the government at that time, with state-owned banks dominating the market share (around 80%). Private commercial banks were only allowed to operate after 1993 when economic reforms began opening up the banking sector to private players.
In terms of infrastructure, most roads were unpaved at that time and only 11% of households had electricity access in rural areas compared to 50% for urban households. Telecommunications were also limited with only about 2 million telephone lines available for a population over 900 million people.
The government’s role in the economy increased significantly from 1991 onwards as part of economic reforms known as “the liberalization process” which sought to open up foreign trade, reduce government control over industry and banking sectors, promote privatization and reduce subsidies on key items such as food grains and fuel products. This process has since seen dramatic growth in India’s economy as it has opened up more opportunities for investment both domestically and internationally while simultaneously reducing poverty levels across much of the country over time.
Foreign Policy of India
In 1995, India’s foreign policy had two main objectives: to promote economic growth and development and to protect the country’s national security. The Indian government sought to pursue these objectives through a combination of bilateral and multilateral diplomacy, economic cooperation, military assistance, and strategic partnerships.
India sought to build strong relationships with other countries in order to promote economic development. In 1995, India signed several agreements with neighbouring countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal and Sri Lanka in order to increase trade and investment opportunities. It also signed the South Asian Free Trade Area Agreement (SAFTA) in 2004 which aimed to promote regional free trade among SAARC members. India also signed several bilateral investment treaties with foreign countries including the United States, Russia, China and Japan.
India also actively participated in international organizations such as the United Nations (UN), World Trade Organization (WTO) and International Monetary Fund (IMF). This allowed it access to global markets while at the same time promoting regional peace and stability by participating in UN peacekeeping operations around the world.
India also sought to strengthen its military capabilities by engaging in joint military exercises with other countries such as Russia, France and the United States. This enabled it to gain access to advanced military technology while at the same time increasing its ability to defend itself against possible threats from other nations.
Finally, India sought strategic partnerships with other countries in order to ensure its national security interests were protected. In 1995, it signed a nuclear cooperation agreement with Russia which allowed it access to Russian nuclear technology while at the same time ensuring that any nuclear material used would be under Indian control. Similarly, India also entered into strategic partnerships with China and France which allowed it access to advanced technology while at the same time providing mutual assurances of non-aggression between both nations.
Overall, India’s foreign policy during this period was focused on promoting economic development through bilateral diplomatic relations while simultaneously strengthening its defensive capabilities through strategic partnerships with other nations. This enabled India not only become a major player on the world stage but also provided it with a secure environment for economic growth over time.
Events Held in India
In 1995, India hosted a number of important events. The first major event was the SAARC Summit in New Delhi, which aimed to promote regional cooperation and economic integration among South Asian countries. During this summit, several agreements were signed that included the establishment of a free trade area (SAFTA), an agreement on customs cooperation and an agreement on investment promotion and protection.
The second major event was the World Trade Organization (WTO) Ministerial Conference in Singapore, which sought to liberalize global trade by establishing rules and regulations for international commerce. India played an important role in this conference as it was one of the main proponents of the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).
The third major event held in India in 1995 was the Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) Plenary Meeting at Hyderabad. This meeting was convened to discuss nuclear non-proliferation issues, with particular emphasis on export controls for nuclear materials and technologies. At this meeting, India made a strong case for its right to access peaceful uses of nuclear energy without being subjected to discrimination or exclusion from international nuclear commerce.
The fourth major event held in India during 1995 was the G-15 Summit at New Delhi. This summit sought to promote economic cooperation among 15 developing countries from Africa, Asia and Latin America by providing them with access to technology transfer and financial resources. During this summit, several agreements were signed including ones related to industrial development projects and energy sector investments.
Finally, India also hosted bilateral meetings with other countries during this period such as Russia and France which allowed it to strengthen its diplomatic ties with them while also gaining access to advanced military technology through joint military exercises or strategic partnerships between both countries.
Overall, 1995 proved to be an important year for India as it hosted several significant events that highlighted its growing importance on the global stage while also allowing it gain access to advanced technologies through diplomatic means or strategic partnerships with other nations.