Greece – key data
Area: 131,957 km² (of which land: 130,647 km², water area 1,310 km²)
Population: 10.8 million people (2011 estimate, CIA). Composition: Greeks: 93%, other nationalities 7% (2001 census).
Population density: 82 people per km²
Population growth: 0.083% per year (2011, CIA)
Capital: Athens (2.81 million residents, 2001)
Highest point: Mytikas in Olympus, 2,917 m
Lowest point: Mediterranean Sea, 0 m
Form of government: Greece has been a parliamentary republic since 1973. The constitution dates from 1975, the last constitutional amendment was made in 2001. The unicameral parliament (Vouli ton Ellinon) consists of 300 members. On February 3, 1830, it became independent Greece confirmed by the Ottoman Empire by the London Protocol. Greece has been a member of the EU since 1981.
Administrative division: 51 Präfekture n: (prefecture, plural: prefectures): Achaia, Aitolia kai Akarnania, Argolis, Arcadia, Arta, Attiki, Chalkidiki, Chanion, Chios, Dodekanisos, Drama, Evros, Evrytania, Evvoia, Florina, Fokidos, Ftiotida, Grevena, Ileia, Imathia, Ioannina, Irakleion, Karditsa, Kastoria, Kavala, Kefallinia, Kerkyra, Kilkis, Korinthia, Kozani, Kyklades, Lakonia, Larisa, Lasithi, Lefkas, Lesvos, Magnisia, Messinia, Pella, Pieria, Preveza, Rethynnis, Rodopi, Samos, Serrai, Thesprotia, Thessaloniki, Trikala, Voiotia, Xanthi and Zakynthos
an autonomous region: Agion Oros (Mt. Athos)
Head of State: President Karolos Papoulias, since March 12, 2005
Head of Government: Prime Minister Andonis Samaras, since June 20, 2012
Language: the official language in Greece is Greek (99%). Other languages such as English and French make up 1%.
Religion: Greek Orthodox 98%, Muslims 1.3%, others 0.7%
Local time: CET +1 h. Between the last Sunday in March and the last Sunday in October there is summer time in Greece (CET + 2 hours).
The time difference to Central Europe is +1 hour in both winter and summer.
International phone code: +30
Mains voltage: 220 V, 50 Hz
The Republic of Greece is located in the south-east of Europe, on the foothills of the Balkan Peninsulas that protrude into the Mediterranean. Greece borders in the north with Albania, Macedonia, Bulgaria and Turkey. The sea forms the natural border in the west, south and east. In addition to the mainland, the national territory also includes around 3,050 islands, of which only 167 are inhabited.
Greece, dominated by sea and mountains, is geographically divided into three areas: the Greek mainland, the Peloponnese peninsula and the Greek islands. Mountain ranges take up about two thirds of the total land area, while only one sixth of it consists of lowlands and about one fifth of islands. The mainland is determined by the towering Píndos Mountains. The most famous mountain in the country, the Olympus, located in Thessaly; the “Mountain of the Gods” is also the highest point in Greece at 2,917 meters.
The emergence of the Greek natural landscapes goes back in part to the Cretaceous Period about 140 million years ago and continued to develop into the Young Tertiary, which ended around 2 million years ago. As in the rest of the Mediterranean, the earth’s crust has not come to rest to this day. Earthquakes still determine life in this region, sometimes with tremendous tremors that lead to major catastrophes. Also underground volcanic activities are recorded under the Aegean Plate, which the islands face Aegina, Mílos and Santorini owe their creation.
The territory of northern Greece extends south to the Ambracian Gulf on the west coast and the Gulf of Lamia on the eastern Mediterranean coast. The Píndos Mountains form the backbone of this region, which is joined by the gentle hills of Epiros in the west and the Bay of Thessaloníki, framed by the mountain ranges of Macedonia, in the northeast. This is bordered by the Chalkidikí peninsula with its foothills Kassandra, Sithonia and Áthos. In the extreme northeast, Greece is closed off by Thrace.
The historical landscape of Thessaly forms the transition between northern and central Greece. The latter is bordered in the south by the Gulf of Pátras and the Gulf of Corinth and is part of the Greek heartland par excellence, with the capital Athens, the Attica peninsula and its basin landscapes and plains, which are dominated by the limestone mountains of the Giona Mountains with the Parnassus as the highest elevation will. Central Greece also includes the Attic Bay and the island of Évia, which is separated from the motherland by a narrow waterway. Southern Greece, respectively the Peloponnese, is connected to central Greece by the Isthmus of Corinth. Arcadia, which is up to 2,500 meters high, forms the central landscape of southern Greece. Visit healthvv.com for Europe history Greek roman world.
The Greek islands are divided into different groups of islands. The Ionian Islands are located at the exit of the Adriatic Sea off the west coast of the mainland. The most famous island is Corfu. The Aegean Islands extend east and south-east of the heartland to the coast of Asia Minor and are in turn divided into individual groups. The Cyclades with Mýkonos, Páros, Náxos and Santorin form the center of the Aegean Islands. In contrast, the islands of Pátmos, Kálymnos, Kos and Rhodes belong to the so-called Dodecanese and the Sporades lie in front of the island of Evia, which is part of central Greece. Finally, Crete is the largest Greek island and closes the national territory of Greece on the southern edge of the Aegean Sea.