According to COMPUTERGEES, Cambodia is a Southeast Asian nation located in the heart of the Indochina region. The country is made up of an estimated 16.2 million people, with its capital city Phnom Penh located on the banks of the Mekong River. With an area of 181,035 square kilometers, Cambodia is one of the smallest countries in mainland Asia. The official language spoken in Cambodia is Khmer; however English and French are also widely spoken.
Cambodia has a unique culture which includes a mix of Indian, Chinese and Vietnamese influences. It is home to a variety of ethnic groups such as Khmer and Cham amongst others. The country’s economy relies heavily on agriculture with rice being one of its main crops. Other key industries include tourism, fishing and manufacturing.
According to aceinland, the nickname for Cambodia is “The Land Of Smiles”. This nickname was given due to its friendly people and welcoming hospitality which make it an ideal holiday destination for many people from around the world. This has become a national motto which still stands today despite political changes in leadership over time. The people of Cambodia have embraced this motto as part of their national identity and are proud to be known as “the land of smiles”.
Population of Cambodia
In 1995, the population of Cambodia was estimated to be around 9 million people. The majority of the population resided in rural areas and were engaged in subsistence farming or fishing. The urban population was estimated to be about 1.2 million people and was concentrated mainly in the capital city of Phnom Penh as well as other major cities such as Battambang, Siem Reap, and Sihanoukville.
According to allcitypopulation.com, the majority of the population was ethnic Khmer, comprising around 90% of the total population. Other ethnic groups included Chinese (4%), Vietnamese (2%), Cham (1%), and other smaller minorities such as Laotians, Indians, and Thais.
The life expectancy at birth was estimated to be around 58 years for both men and women in 1995. Infant mortality rate stood at 73 deaths per 1,000 live births while overall mortality rate was 8 deaths per 1,000 persons in 1995.
In terms of education level, only about 40% of Cambodians aged 15 years or above had completed their primary education in 1995. Literacy rate among adults aged 15 years or above stood at about 55%.
In terms of religion, Buddhism is by far the most prominent religion practiced by Cambodians with an estimated 95% adherence rate in 1995. Other religions practiced include Islam (3%), Christianity (2%) and indigenous faiths (0.3%).
Cambodia’s economy in 1995 primarily relied on agriculture which accounted for almost 50% of its GDP while the service sector accounted for 33%. Manufacturing contributed 13% to GDP while mining contributed 4%. The country’s main exports were garments, rubber products and rice while its imports mainly consisted of fuel products and machinery.
In terms of healthcare system at that time, there were only about 0.8 physicians per 10 thousand people available for treating patients with serious illnesses or injuries which caused a huge strain on the healthcare system since most Cambodians lacked access to quality medical care due to poverty levels or lack of infrastructure required for such services to be available in rural areas where most Cambodians lived during this time period. Furthermore, the country’s healthcare system was also severely affected by the war and the Khmer Rouge regime which had destroyed most of its healthcare infrastructure.
Economy of Cambodia
Cambodia’s economy in 1995 was heavily reliant on agriculture which accounted for almost 50% of its GDP. This was mainly due to the fact that most of the population was employed in agricultural activities such as fishing, livestock rearing and farming. Rice production, which accounted for the majority of agricultural output, had been severely affected by the Khmer Rouge regime and the subsequent civil war. This meant that agricultural productivity was low and this consequently led to a weak economy.
The manufacturing sector in Cambodia also contributed significantly to its economy with an estimated 13% contribution towards GDP. The main industries within this sector included textiles, garments, food processing, rubber processing and metal fabrication. These industries were largely export oriented which meant that they relied heavily on foreign markets for their products.
The service sector was another important contributor to Cambodia’s economy in 1995 with an estimated 33% contribution towards GDP. This included activities such as banking, telecommunications and trade among others. The banking sector had been largely affected by the war and it had not yet recovered from it even after a decade of peace in 1995.
Cambodia’s main exports were garments, rubber products and rice while its imports mainly consisted of fuel products and machinery. This meant that Cambodia had a significant trade deficit as it imported more than it exported which caused its currency value to weaken over time due to lack of foreign exchange reserves to back up its currency value.
In terms of infrastructure development at this time period, most roads were unpaved while railway networks were limited due to lack of funds available during this period for such projects. Electricity supply was also unreliable due to lack of infrastructure development while internet access was relatively rare during this time period as well due to low adoption rates among Cambodians at that time period.
Overall, Cambodia’s economy in 1995 was still largely dependent on agriculture with a weak manufacturing sector as well as limited infrastructure development projects which hindered economic growth during that time period despite some improvements over the past decade since the end of civil war in 1985.
Foreign Policy of Cambodia
The foreign policy of Cambodia in 1995 was largely shaped by the legacy of the civil war, which had ended a decade earlier. As a result, the country was in need of rebuilding and international support to do so. This led to Cambodia forming close diplomatic ties with its neighbours, such as Thailand, Vietnam, and Laos. The country also sought out international aid from organisations such as the United Nations (UN) and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
Cambodia also sought to develop relations with other countries beyond its immediate region. It established diplomatic ties with China in 1991 and also signed an agreement with Russia in 1995 for economic cooperation. During this time period, Cambodia also began to establish links with other countries around the world, including Japan, South Korea and France.
In terms of foreign policy objectives during this time period, Cambodia sought to maintain peace and security both within its borders and in neighbouring countries. To this end, it worked closely with ASEAN members to promote regional stability through diplomacy and dialogue. It also worked closely with China on issues related to trade and investment as well as political cooperation.
In addition to promoting peace and security within its own borders, Cambodia also supported various UN initiatives aimed at improving global governance through multilateralism such as the UN Convention on Human Rights (UNCHR), International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR), International Covenant on Economic Social & Cultural Rights (ICESCR) among others.
Finally, Cambodia was a strong proponent of non-interference in domestic affairs when it came to foreign policy during this time period. This meant that it opposed any external interference or intervention in its internal matters or those of its neighbouring countries by other nations or international organisations such as the UN Security Council or NATO for example.
Overall, during this time period Cambodian foreign policy focused largely on maintaining peace both within its own borders as well as regionally through diplomacy while at the same time working towards fostering good relations with other nations across the globe through economic cooperation agreements and support for various UN initiatives aimed at improving global governance through multilateralism.
Events Held in Cambodia
In 1995, Cambodia held a number of events that were significant for the country and its people. The first was the celebration of the 50th anniversary of Cambodia’s independence from France in November. During this event, festivities included a military parade, fireworks, and a special ceremony to honor fallen soldiers. This event was attended by many high-ranking officials from both Cambodia and other countries as well as members of the public.
The second event was the signing of an agreement between Cambodia and Russia in April. This agreement aimed to strengthen economic ties between the two countries, with Russia providing aid in the form of investment and technology transfer while also helping to promote trade between them. The signing ceremony was held at the Royal Palace in Phnom Penh and attended by Prime Minister Hun Sen as well as representatives from both countries.
The third event was a visit to Cambodia by Japanese Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama in May. During his visit, Murayama met with King Norodom Sihanouk as well as Prime Minister Hun Sen to discuss ways to improve relations between Japan and Cambodia. He also announced that Japan would provide economic assistance to help improve infrastructure and living standards within Cambodia.
The fourth event was a visit by South Korean President Kim Young Sam in June. During his visit, Kim met with King Norodom Sihanouk and discussed ways to improve bilateral relations between South Korea and Cambodia. He also announced that South Korea would provide financial assistance for various projects such as infrastructure development, health care initiatives, education programs and other areas within Cambodian society that could benefit from foreign aid.
Finally, during this time period French President Jacques Chirac visited Phnom Penh in October for talks with Prime Minister Hun Sen about strengthening economic ties between France and Cambodia through increased investment opportunities for French companies within the country’s economy as well as providing support for various infrastructure projects such as roads, bridges and airports that were planned for construction throughout Cambodia at this time period.
Overall, 1995 saw a number of significant events take place within Cambodian borders which sought to strengthen its ties with other nations around the world while at the same time promoting peace within its own borders through diplomatic efforts such as those mentioned above which helped foster good relations between neighbouring countries while also providing much needed economic assistance from foreign sources which helped improve living conditions within Cambodian society during this time period.