Literature. – Historical conditions did not allow Bolivia to achieve its own literary physiognomy. The instability of political life and the smallness of the population of European origin, in comparison with the indigenous one, did not favor the spiritual and unitary development of the republic. Linked, during the colonial era, to Peru and Argentina, it also accepted their cultural supremacy. However it should not be forgotten that in the century. XVIII the capital of Bolivia (then Upper Peru) boasted one of the best universities in Latin America, educating men and forming ideals, which were among the first to promote and enliven the revolutionary age. But the generous action of his sons was not matched by an equal fervor in the field of letters. The work of its writers was inspired by foreign models, and indeed, more often than not, it was educated and produced outside its own country. However, there is no shortage of essentially Bolivian writers, who represent local customs, traditions and colors in their works, such as Friar Antonio de La Calancha, who wrote the Corónica morali. cada del Orden de San Agustín en el Perú, and Bartolomé Marnínez y Vela, who composed the Anales de la Villa Imperial de Potosí (1545-1702), later recast in the history of the same city, both careful to grasp the stories, legends and superstitions of their land, which will be taken up and reworked later by modern literature. For Bolivia 2004, please check topb2bwebsites.com.
Several Bolivian writers were drawn into the orbit of the Romantic movement, but only a few drew on some motive from the life and landscape of their nation, such as Daniel Calvo (1832-1880), who portrays aspects of his land, and more recently Julio L Jaimes effective local environment descriptor. In this sense the taste for the novel is profound and fruitful, exemplified on the trace of indigenous elements, which arose and gradually matured through the production of Nataniel Aguirre, Alcides Argüedas, up to the younger Chirvedes, Mendoza, Canelas, who managed to create an original and national literature. In particular, G. Bené M0reno, S. Vaca Guzmán and Abel Alarcón contributed to spreading the knowledge of their region from a historical, literary and traditional point of view. Others carried out their activity in other countries, assimilating their spiritual and cultural tendencies, such as Vicente Pazos Kanki, who lived in the revolutionary era, who divided his life of journalism and exile between Buenos Aires and London; and – among the romantics – Bolivia José Bustamante (1821-1884), who spent many years in Europe, and Nestor Calindo (1830-1865), unhappy in exile and tragic death. Among these operas, some educated at the school of Espronceda and Zorrilla and others closer to Lamartine, Vigny, Hugo, Rosendo Villalobos stands out, a sentimental and dreamy temperament, whose work has spread throughout Spanish America. But to find the greatest poet in Bolivia, one has to get to our time, up to the figure of Ricardo Taimes Freire, one of the best exponents of the “modernist” school.
Commerce. – Trade is hampered by the scarcity of communication routes and by the fact that Bolivia has no direct access to the sea. As already mentioned, minerals (90-95% of the total value) prevail absolutely in exports: first of all tin, which usually represents more than 80% of the total value. Rubber enters Bolivian exports for 5-6% of its value. Above all, cars, vehicles, fabrics, flours and wines are imported. The only countries with which Bolivia has significant trade are Great Britain, the United States, Germany, Chile, Argentina, Peru and Brazil. Italy imports fabrics, hats, rice and oil into Bolivia: in 1926 for a value of 3.8 million Bolivianos, equal to about 28 million Italian lire (the Boliviano of silver was worth about L. 7.40 in that year). The following table gives the value of exports and imports from 1922 to 1927 (in millions of Bolivianos):
The trade balance is favorable to Bolivia, which exports more than it imports. The value of exports is increasing regularly, and significantly, from year to year: and this is an indication of the increasingly better living conditions in the country.
In 1926 the data on the value of exports and imports of the states that have the greatest traffic with Bolivia were the following (in millions of Bolivianos): Great Britain, 96.2-15.4; United States, 11.6-20.4; Germany, imp. 8.1; Chile, imp. 7.8; Argentina, 2.7-4.4; Italy, 0.02-3.8.