Austria Human Geography
Reduced in 1919 from an empire of 51 million residents extended for 670,000 km² to a small country of only 83,857 km² and 8,177,000 residents, Austria also demographically expressed its difficulties in adapting to the new political situation; in fact there was a halt in the development of the population (around 1940 the death rate exceeded the birth rate) and only after the Second World War there was an inversion of these values, which in the period 1997-2002 settled on European averages, with an annual growth of 0%. In 2003, the Austrian population corresponded to 16% of that present in the Austro-Hungarian Empire shortly before its fall. On the other hand, the percentage of foreign citizens present in its territory, equal to 9.2%, places Austria in second place in the EU ranking. It was the political events that characterized the Balkans, but also the other Eastern European countries (and in the first place the former Czechoslovakia), which fueled the main migratory flows towards Austria, often considered only as a transit stop. Slovenes in Carinthia and Styria, Croats and Hungarians in Burgenland, Czechs and Slovaks in Vienna constitute the most representative minorities. Also noteworthy is the presence of workers from Turkey and the Balkan area; in this regard, it is estimated that foreign workers represent approx. 10%. of the total workforce, as it allows Austria to earn first place in the EU. The distribution of the population largely derives from the structures created under the Habsburg rule, still a cornerstone of the country’s urban geography. In the first place comes the capital, which forms an autonomous region coinciding with the urban agglomeration called “Greater Vienna”, in which approx. one seventh of the entire population; the metropolis plays a fundamental economic function in the context of the nation, for the numerous industries and the railway and road communications that connect here with the lines for Eastern Europe and the Balkans. The whole territorial organization of the country is also hinged on Vienna, which has its population lines along the major valleys: that of the Inn, where it is located Innsbruck, transalpine communications hub; that of the Salzach river, which has its summit in Salzburg; that of the Drava, where Graz is located. The most populous area is the Danube valley, which hosts, in addition to the capital, Linz and numerous towns, small and large. The urban population constitutes 67.3% of the total. The density average is 100 residents / km², a value that drops considerably in the mountain valleys. Apart from Vienna, commensurate with the vastness of the Habsburg Empire of which it represented the fulcrum, the main cities are almost similar in size; they are commercial centers which, in addition to representing important communication nodes, carry out various industrial functions. Austria, hosting numerous industries and being the apex of rail and road communications, which connect here with the lines for Eastern Europe and the Balkans. The whole territorial organization of the country also focuses on Vienna, which has its population lines along the major valleys: that of the Inn, where Innsbruck is located, a hub of transalpine communications; that of the Salzach river, which has its summit in Salzburg; that of the Drava, where Graz is; but the most populous area is the Danube valley, which hosts, in addition to the capital, Linz and numerous towns, small and large. However, the demographic and economic center of gravity tends to shift towards the west, thanks to growing trade exchanges with Germany and Western European countries and the greater vitality shown by small and medium-sized light industries in Western states compared to the decline of heavy industries in eastern European states. ‘Austria. Over the last twenty years, Upper Austria, Salzburg, Tyrol, Vorarlberg and Carinthia have registered an increase in population, while Lower Austria has remained stationary and Vienna, Burgenland and Styria have experienced a decrease. Apart from Vienna, the main cities are almost similar in size.
According to politicsezine, Upper Austria, is a federal state in Austria, between Inn and Enns with anarea of11,980 km 2 and 1.46 million residents; The capital is Linz. To the south of the Danube, Upper Austria has a share of the Alpine foothills (agriculture) and the Salzkammergut (tourism), while the Dachstein (2,995 m) lies on the southern border. Upper Austria has several hydropower plants, especially in Linz and on the Traun Industry with a focus on metal processing. State governor has been Thomas Stelzer (* 1967, ÖVP) since 2017.