Australia History Summary
Only after J. Cook’s expedition in 1770 did the British become interested in Australia, which after the loss of the American colonies became a place of deportation. The first two groups of deportees (1787, 1790) were settled in the region around Sydney. The officers were given land assignments and soon formed a ruling caste, in constant struggle with the governor.
In those years the exploration of the coasts continued by G. Bass, N. Baudin, M. Flinders (to whom we owe the affirmation of the current name of the continent), J. Grant and J. Murray. Far more important to the country’s future life were the first large-scale sheep farming experiments carried out by J. Macarthur, who quickly became the richest and most powerful man in Australia. Meanwhile, although delayed by serious difficulties in the physical environment and by the hostile reception of the natives, the exploration of the interior took place, which gave way to the development of sheep farming and wool production.
In 1823, under the governor Th.M. Brisbane, the New South Wales Judicature Actsanctioned the separation from the. of Tasmania, which thus remained the only deportation colony. At the end of the penal settlement policy, the policy of large immigration corresponded, following which an ever wider class of breeders and traders was created and the first political instances were born. In 1850 a new Constitution was promulgated which provided for the creation for New South Wales, Tasmania, the Australia Southern and the new colony of Victoria of elective mixed chambers for two thirds. The discovery of gold at Bathurst (1851) attracted a formidable invasion of prospectors from England and Europe to Australia, who poured into the interior in all directions, opening new channels of exploration. The unleashing of dangerous adventurers, mostly from the ranks of the ancient deportees, he placed the end of the deportations in Tasmania as a precondition for the pacification of the country. In 1853 the English Parliament decided to establish a Legislative Council and an Elective Assembly, with responsible governments in the various regions, joined by Queensland, separated from New South Wales. 19 ° the increase in population and the growing wealth of the country following the exploitation of gold mines led to a rapid transformation of economic and social life. The Labor Party drew strength and consistency from the economic crisis of the 1880s, caused above all by the fall in foreign demand.
In 1901 the Commonwealth was formed. The first years of the new body were dominated by disputes over jurisdiction between federal bodies and bodies of individual states, a conflict faced by a coalition government, whose most important act was the Immigration Restriction Act (1902). After the resounding electoral success of Labor in 1910, the Hughes government aimed at moderate social reforms, which allowed it to maintain the solidarity of the country during the First World War. But, after the war, the difficulties between federal and state powers were renewed, until the reduction of expenses, the success of a national loan and the resumption of foreign trade healed the situation. For Australia history, please check areacodesexplorer.com.
The Second World War forced the Australia, main ally of the USA in the Pacific, to a considerable economic and military effort. Labor governments successfully tackled the problems posed by the war and subsequent economic reconversion, but then internal tensions led to their electoral defeat in 1949. The coalition government between the Liberal Party and the National Agrarian Party, chaired by RG Menzies, who impressed on foreign policy a clear characterization in a pro-Western sense, he maintained the leadership of the country for 23 years until, at the beginning of the 1970s, the changes that took place in the internal and international political situation led to the growth of consensus and the victory of the Party Labor.
The Labor government of EG Whitlam, which took office in 1972, inaugurated a foreign policy less aligned with the West and more attentive to relations with other countries in Oceania and the Far East, and on the domestic level promoted a policy of reform and expansion of the welfare state. However, it was unable to cope with the consequences of the international economic crisis of 1973-75 and the early elections of 1975 again sanctioned the victory of the liberal-agrarian coalition, led by M. Fraser. The Labor Party returned victorious in the political elections of 1983 and with the government of R. Hawke initiated a policy of relaunching the economy and containing inflation which allowed a decrease in social conflict; in foreign policy he gave impetus to relations with the countries of Southeast Asia, while maintaining close relations with the United States.
The conservative coalition, chaired by J. Howard, returned to the leadership of the country after a clear affirmation obtained in the elections of 1996. The victory was confirmed in 1998, in 2001 and again in 2004, despite the growing discontent against the choices of foreign policy in support from Washington and London (participation in the war in Afghanistan, dispatch of troops to Iraq in 2003). In November 2007, the victory of Labor leader K. Rudd ended the conservative hegemony; while not obtaining an absolute majority of seats in the House of Representatives, Labor confirmed their success in the federal elections held in August 2010, and formed a minority government chaired by J. Gillard. In June 2013, the female politician was beaten in an internal Labor Party vote by her predecessor Rudd: after Gillard’s resignation, he took over from her. In September 2013, after six years of Labor government, the legislative consultations recorded the affirmation of the Conservatives, who obtained 88 seats out of the 150 seats in Parliament; The leader of the Liberal Party T. Abbott, who resigned in September 2015 because he was discouraged by his party, was appointed as the new premier of the country, taking over from him M. Turnbull, who also assumed the leadership of the conservatives.